Treatment: Outlook

Outlook and Recommendations

It is hoped that at least some of the options given in this overview will show positive results over time. It is also important, though, that despite the immense pressure, the basic principles of drug development and research including repurposing are not abandoned. Time is needed.

The aim of the COVID Reference textbook is to scan the literature, not to write guidelines. However, after reviewing the studies published until October 15 presented above, we would recommend reviewing the following treatment options, considering the severity of the disease:

Outpatient, mild to moderate (no risk factors)

  • Do NOTHING, except downtalking the patient. And make sure that he or she (and their households) stays home

Outpatient, mild to moderate (with risk factors)

  • Do NOT use dexamethasone (could be harmful) or remdesivir (daily infusions not feasible)
  • Do NOT use hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma or lopinavir (not efficient, plus side effects)
  • Famotidine: why not? Potential harm seems to be limited
  • Consider REGN-COV2 (if you are the personal doctor of a famous person)
  • Interferon may work, if given early (optimal usage and administration is unclear)

Hospital, severe

  • Use dexamethasone (only a few days)
  • Use remdesivir (5 days) as soon as possible (no benefit in those requiring high-flow oxygen or mechanical ventilation)
  • Consider tocilizumab or other cytokine blocking agents, if available

Find the entire treatment chapter at



AcalabrutinibAnticomplement therapiesAzithromycinCamostatChloroquineColchicineConvalescent plasmaCorticosteroidsCytokine blockersFamotidineFavipiravirG-CSFHuman recombinant soluble ACE2HydroxychloroquineIbrutinibIloprostInterferonsJAK inhibitorsLeflunomideLopinavirMonoclonal antibodiesN-acetylcysteineOseltamivir(other) Protease inhibitors(other) RdRp inhibitorsREGN-COV2Umifenovir

Outlook | References

COVID Reference chapters:

Epidemiology | Transmission | Prevention | Virology | Immunology | Diagnosis | Clinical Manifestations | Treatment | Severe COVID-19 | Comorbidities / Special Populations | Pediatrics| Timeline | Preface

By Christian Hoffmann