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By Tim Niehues
Jennifer Neubert

Acknowledgements: Without the skillful help of Andrea Groth (Helios Klinikum Krefeld), the preparation of this manuscript would not have been possible. We thank cand. med. Lars Dinkelbach (Heinrich Heine Universität Düsseldorf) for critically reading the manuscript.

SARS-CoV-2 infection in children

SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents is a major factor in spreading of the COVID-19 disease worldwide and key to the development of herd immunity. Children have an often asymptomatic or less severe COVID 19 disease course than adults. In this regard COVID is strikingly different from other virus-induced respiratory diseases, which can be fatal in infants (e.g. RSV). The CoV-2 pandemic causes anxiety to seek medical care and leads to collateral damage to children because parents avoid hospitals despite their children having an emergency (Lazzerini 2020).

At this stage (13 April 2020), great caution is advised when interpreting the data that have been collected on children so far, (e.g., data on the Wuhan children were published more than once). Some children were seen in children’s hospitals, some in Internal Medicine Departments. The Chinese health system is ranked number 144 out of 191 member countries of the World Health Organization. Delivery of medical service in China is largely dependent on economic income, resulting in a large bias regarding inclusion and exclusion of children into registries/studies and in under- or over-estimation of important facts like disease severity, outcome, treatment effects.

Commonly circulating coronaviruses in children: tropism, incubation period and spreading

The first International Corona Virus Conference was organized by Volker Termeulen in Würzburg/Germany in 1980. At the time only one human coronavirus, HCoV2229E, was known to be associated with the common cold.  (Weiss 2020) Commonly circulating human coronaviruses can be isolated from 4-8% of all children with acute respiratory tract infections, which tend to be mild, unless the child is immunocompromised (Ogimi 2019). Seven coronaviruses circulate among humans: α-Coronaviruses HCoV2-229e, -HKU1; β-Coronaviruses HCoV2-NL63, -OC43; MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 that have originally derived from bats (NL63, 229e, SARS-CoV), Dromedary Camels (229e, MERS-CoV), cattle (OC43), pangolins (SARS-CoV-2) (Zimmermann 2020). There appear to be re-infections with the earlier described common COV despite the fact that most individuals seroconvert to human coronaviruses. In many children there are co-infections with other viruses such as Adeno-, Boca-, Rhino-, RSV-, Influenza- or Parainfluenza virus. There seems to be a cyclic pattern with seasonal outbreaks between December and May or March to November in the southern hemisphere.

A characteristic of the single-strand RNA coronaviruses is the capability of rapid mutation and recombination leading to novel coronaviruses that can spread from animals to humans. They have caused epidemics leading to significant case fatality rates (10% in SARS-CoV, Hong Kong 2002; more than 30% in MERS-CoV, Saudi Arabia 2012). Because of the high case fatality rate, both SARS-COV and MERS-COV have a low potential for long-term sustained community transmission. Accordingly, no human SARS-CoV infections have been reported since July 2003.

It is estimated that in SARS-CoV-2 one person infects 2-3 other persons. In clusters (e.g. nosocomial outbreaks) this number might be much higher. In both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, super-spreading events with one individual infecting up to 22 (SARS) or even 30 individuals (MERS) have been reported, especially in nosocomial outbreaks. In SARS-CoV a total of 41 children were reported with no deaths. Similarly, in MERS-CoV only 38 children were reported in two studies, with two deaths (Zimmermann 2020).

Epidemiology of COVID-19 in children

In April 6 the US CDC reported 2572 (1.7%) children under 18 years among 149,082 reported cases from 12 February to 2 April 2020. The availability of data was extremely limited (less than 10% available on symptoms, 13% on underlying conditions, 33% on whether children were hospitalized or not). Three deaths were reported to the CDC but no details were given. The median age was 11 and they were 57% males. 15 children were admitted to an ICU (≤2%). Children <1 year accounted for the highest percentage (15-62%) of hospitalization (CDC 2020). The Chinese CDC report (Dong 2020) comprises 2,143 pediatric patients from January 16 to February 8 2020. Only 731 children (34.1%) were laboratory confirmed cases. The median age was 7 years with 56.6% boys, less than 5% were classified as severe and less than 1% as critical. One Chinese 10 month-old child who had been infected with CoV-2 was reported to have died with intussuception and multi-organ failure (Lu X 2020). The Korean Center for Disease Control and Prevention reported on 20 March that 6.3% of all COVID-19 cases were children under 19 years of age; again, the children had a mild form of the disease (Korean Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Press releases, Italian data published on 18 March showed that only 1.2% of the 22,512 Italian cases with COVID-19 were children; no deaths were reported in this and in the Spanish cohort from Madrid (2 March to 16 March) (Livingstone 2020, Tagarro 2020). As of 15 April 2020, in Germany 41 centers reported 65 pediatric hospital admissions, about one third had an underlying disease, mostly pulmonary or cardiac diseases. One child died (a 2 year-old child from a consangineous genetic background with encephalopathy and a history of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and weekly methotrexate treatment; personal communication, U. Neudorf, University Childrens Hospital, Essen) (

Natural course and risk factors for complications

The incubation period is believed to be 3-7 days (range 1-14 days) (She 2020), the clinical onset 5-8 days after infection with the virus. At 10 days after onset of symptoms hyperinflammation may set in and cause a more severe and potentially fatal disease, especially in high risk groups. The clinical manifestation is believed to last for 1-2 weeks, longer in complicated cases. Due to the paucity of data it is as yet unclear which group of children may be at a higher risk for development of complications, e.g. children with underlying chronic pulmonary or cardiac disease, severe neurologic deficits, immunosuppressed or critically ill children etc. Analogous to influenza there might be genetic susceptibility in some children (Clohisey 2019). Interestingly, in a flash survey from 25 countries with 10,000 children with cancer at risk and 200 tested, only 9 were found to be CoV-2 positive. They were asymptomatic or had mild disease (Hrusak 2020).

Pathophysiology and immunopathology

It is unclear why COVID-19 in children is associated with a less severe disease course.

The tissue expression pattern of the receptor for CoV-2 angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2) and the transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 (essential for CoV-2 cell entry) as well as the tissue tropism of CoV-2 in childhood are unknown. ACE2 is expressed on cells of the airways, the lungs, mucosal cells (lids, eyelids, nasal cavities), intestines and on immune cells (monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils) (Molloy 2020, reviewed in Brodin 2020). It needs to be clarified whether there is neurotropism (e.g. affecting the developing brain of newborns).

The main target of CoV-2 is the respiratory tract. As respiratory infections are extremely common in children it is to be expected that there are other viruses present in the respiratory tract of young children concomitantly with the coronavirus, which may limit its growth and the number of CoV-2 copies in the respiratory tract of children. Systematic viral load measurements in the respiratory tract of different viruses in children are underway. Key to the later immunopathologic stages of COVID-19 pneumonia is the macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)-like hyperinflammatory phase with a cytokine storm and acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS, usually within 10-12 days after symptom onset. In general, children are not less prone to develop ARDS during respiratory tract infections than adults. In the H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009, being under the age of 1 year was a significant risk factor for developing a severe form of the infection and ARDS (Bautista 2010). Why ARDS is less common in children compared to adults with COVID is unclear.

Regarding childhood immunity, an explanation for the milder disease course in children could be age-related differences in immune responses to CoV-2 between adults and children. In the innate immune response damaged lung cells induce inflammation by macrophages and granulocytes. Based on influenza animal models it has been proposed that BCG vaccination (done in the first week of life in some countries) may enhance non-specific innate immunity in children to infections like COVID-19 (so-called trained immunity) (Moorlag 2019).

In the adaptive response cytotoxic T cells play an important role in regulating responses to viral infections and control of viral replication. Children could benefit from the fact that the cytotoxic effector function of CD8 T cells in viral infection in children may be less detrimental compared to adults. Immune dysregulation with exhaustion of T cells has been reported in adults with COVID-19 infection. Children could benefit from the fact that the cytotoxic effector function of CD8 T cells in viral infection in children may be less detrimental compared to adults. Regarding humoral immunity CoV-2 maternal antibodies are transferred to the child via placenta or breast milk but may not include anti CoV-2 antibodies, if the mother is naïve to CoV-2 or infected late in pregnancy. In mothers with COVID-19 pneumonia serum and throat swabs of their newborns were negative for CoV-2 but virus-specific IgG antibodies were detected (Zeng H 2020). Thus, neonates may benefit from placental transmission of virus-specific antibodies from pre-exposed mothers. In SARS-CoV-2 the child itself may mount a significant humoral response to one of the immunodominat epitopes, e.g. the crown-like spike proteins giving the coronaviruses their name. Data regarding seroprevalence and quality of the immune response in children are lacking.


Contraction of COVID-19 in a pregnant woman may have an impact on fetal outcome, namely fetal distress, potential preterm birth or respiratory distress if the mother gets very sick. As of yet there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted vertically from mother to child. Amniotic fluid, cord blood, neonatal throat swabs all tested negative in a small cohort (Chen 2020). Schwartz reviewed 5 publications from China and was able to identify 38 pregnant women with 39 offspring among whom 30 were tested for COVID-19 and all of them were negative (Schwartz 2020). Transmission by breastfeeding has not yet been reported and there are no case reports of detection of CoV-2 in breast milk.

SARS-CoV-2 in children is transmitted through family contacts and mainly through respiratory droplets. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of aerosols may facilitate transmission. (She 2020). Favoring successful virus spread is the fact that virus shedding starts 24-48 hours prior to any symptoms.

SARS-CoV-2 may also be transmitted through the digestive tract. ACE2 is also found in upper esophageal and epithelial cells as well as intestinal epithelial cells in the ileum and colon (She 2020). SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in the feces of patients (Holshue 2020). Cai revealed that viral RNA is detected from feces of children at a high rate (and can be excreted as long as 2-4 weeks) (Cai et al 2020). However, direct evidence of a fecal to oral transmission has not yet been documented.

Diagnosis and classification

Testing for the virus is only necessary in clinically suspect children. If the result is initially negative, repeat nasopharyngeal or throat swab-testing of upper respiratory tract samples or testing of lower respiratory tract samples should be done. Sampling of the lower respiratory tract (induced sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage) is more sensitive (Han 2020). This is not always possible in critically ill patients and in young children.

Diagnosis is usually made by real time polymerase chase reaction RT-PCR on respiratory secretions and available within 4 hours. For SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, higher viral loads have been detected in samples from lower respiratory tract compared with upper respiratory tract. Stool samples cannot be used for routine diagnosis. In rare cases positive PCRs in blood have been reported.

Serologic testing for CoV-2 antibodies in children who are symptomatic is currently not useful but may be helpful to assess immunity in children in the future. As in other viral infections, a CoV-2 specific IgG antibody response will mount within 2-3 weeks after infection and may or may not indicate protective immunity (yet to be determined). In case it indicates protective immunity, this will be extremely important for the assessment of CoV-2 epidemiology and herd immunity.


Table 1. COVID classification in children (Shen 2020)
1 Asymptomatic without any clinical symptoms
2 Mild fever, fatigue, myalgia and symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections,
3 Moderate pneumonia, fever and cough, productive cough, wheezing but no hypoxemia
4 Severe fever, cough, tachypnea, oxygen saturation less than 92%, somnolence
5 Critical quick progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS or respiratory failure


Laboratory and radiology findings

Laboratory and/or radiology studies in outpatient children who have mild disease are not indicated. Upon admission to the hospital the white blood cell count is usually normal. In a minority of children decreased lymphocyte counts have been documented. In contrast, adults (with hyperinflammation and cytokine release syndrome) often have an increase in neutrophils and lymphopenia. The inflammation parameters C-reactive protein and procalcitonin can be slightly elevated or normal while there are elevated liver enzymes, creatine kinase CK-MB and D-dimers in some patients. LDH appears to be elevated in severe cases and can be used to monitor severe disease.

A chest X-ray should only be done in children with moderate or more severe disease as CT scans mean a very high radiation exposure for the child and should only be done in complicated or high-risk cases. In the beginning of the pandemic in China, children all received CT scans even when they were asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic; surprisingly, they displayed very severe changes. On chest radiography there are bilateral patchy airspace consolidations and so-called ground-glass opacities. CT scans were more impressive than chest x-ray examinations. In 20 children with CT, 16 (80%) had some abnormalities (Xia 2020).

Symptoms and signs

Children and adolescents

The clinical presentation of the disease appears somewhat similar to influenza. In the largest clinical trial of 171 children from Wuhan fever was reported in 41% (71 of 171), cough in over 50% (83 of 171), tachypnea in 28% (49 of 171). In 27 of the patients there were no symptoms at all (15.8%). At initial presentation very few children required oxygen supplementation (4 of 171, 2.3%). Other symptoms like diarrhea, fatigue, runny nose and vomiting were observed only in less than 10% of the children (Lu 2020). In the case series from Zhejiang as many as 10 out of 36 patients (28%) had no symptoms at all. None of the children had an oxygen saturation below 92% (Qiu 2020).

Neonates and infants

Zeng reports 33 newborns born to mothers with COVID-19 in Wuhan. Three of the 33 infants (9%) presented with early-onset SARS-CoV-2 infection. In 2 of the 3 neonates there were radiological signs of pneumonia. In one child disseminated intravascular coagulation was described but eventually all children had stable vital signs three weeks after the infection when the report was published (26 March 2020) (Zeng L 020). In a second cohort, 9 infants aged 1 month to 9 months were described without any severe complications (Wei 2020). Whether there may be complications of COVID-19 in newborns and infants long-term cannot be judged at this stage of the pandemic. At present it is not recommended to separate healthy newborns from mothers with suspicion of COVID-19 (CDC-2 2020). Clearly a preterm or newborn that has been exposed to CoV-2 needs to be closely monitored by the hospital and/or the primary care pediatrician. If there are signs of COVID (e.g. poor feeding, unstable temperature, tachy/dyspnea) it needs to be hospitalized and tested and lab examinations and chest x-ray to be done. Testing for CoV-2 is not useful before day 5 because of the incubation period. There needs to be a strict hygiene as much as possible in this mother-child setting.


Infection control

Early identification of COVID-19 and quarantine of contacts is imperative. In the in- and outpatient setting it is advised to separate children who have infectious diseases from healthy non-infectious children. Nosocomial outbreaks have played a role in the clustering of COVID-19. Thus it is advised to admit children with COVID-19 to the hospital only if an experienced pediatrician feels it is medically necessary (e.g. tachypnea, dyspnea, oxygen levels below 92%). In the hospital the child with COVID-19 or suspicion of COVID-19 needs to be isolated in a single room or admitted to a COVID-19-only ward in which COVID-19 exposed medical personnel maintains distance as well (e.g. no shifts on other wards). The presence of one parent is not negotiable in the care of the sick child both for emotional reasons as well as for help in nursing of the child.

During the peak phase of the COVID-19 epidemic, precautions in the outpatient and hospital setting include entrance control, strict hand and respiratory hygiene, daily cleaning and disinfection of the environment, and provision of protection (gloves, mask, goggles) for all medical staff when taking care of a COVID-19 or a suspected COVID-19 case (Wang 2020). In neonatal intensive care units (NICU), negative pressure rooms and filtering of exhaust would be ideal (Lu Q 2020). Respirators with closed circuit and filter systems should be used. Aerosol generating procedures, e.g. intubation, bronchoscopy, humidified inhalations/nebulization should be avoided as much as possible.

Supportive treatment (respiratory support, bronchodilatation therapy, fever, superinfection, psychosocial support)

Having the child sitting in an upright position will be helpful for breathing. It might be useful to have physiotherapy. Insufflation of oxygen via nasal cannula will be important to children as it will increase lung ventilation and perfusion. In neonates high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has been utilized widely due to its superiority over other non-invasive respiratory support techniques.

The clinical use and safety of inhaling different substances in COVID-19 is unclear. In other common obstructive and infectious childhood lung diseases, e.g. in bronchiolitis, the American Academy of Pediatrics is now recommending against the use of bronchodilators (Dunn 2020). Regarding the inhalation of steroids as part of maintenance therapy for asthma bronchiale there is no evidence to discontinue this treatment in children with COVID-19.

There is a large controversy over the extent of antipyretics usage in children. Still, in a child with COVID-19 who is clinically affected by high-degree fever, paracetamol or ibuprofen may be useful. There is no restriction despite initial WHO warnings of using ibuprofen, there is no evidence that the use of paracetamol or ibuprofen is harmful in COVID-19 in children (Day 2020).

The differentiation between CoV-2-induced viral pneumonia and bacterial superinfection is difficult unless there is clear evidence from culture results or typical radiological findings. Bacterial superinfection will be treated according the international and national guidelines (Mathur 2018).

The virus outbreak brings psychological stress to the parents and family as well as medical staff; therefore, social workers and psychologists should be involved when available.

Treatment of respiratory failure

The treatment of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (pARDS) is reviewed elsewhere (Allareddy 2019). For neonates with pARDS high-dose pulmonary surfactant replacement, nitric oxide inhalation, and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation might be effective. In critically ill neonates, continuous renal replacement and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation need to be implemented if necessary.

COVID-19-specific drug treatment

As of yet there are no data from controlled clinical trials and thus there is currently no high-quality evidence available to support the use of any medication to treat COVID-19. The drugs listed below are repurposed drugs and there is limited or almost no pediatric experience. In the case of a severe or critically ill child with COVID the pediatrician has to make a decision whether to try a drug or not. If initiation of a drug treatment is decided, children should be included into clinical trials ( if anyhow possible. However, there are only very few, if any, studies open for recruitment in children.

When to treat with drugs

Under the lead of the German Society for Pediatric Infectiology (DGPI) an expert panel has proposed a consensus on when to start antiviral or immunomodulatory treatment in children (Table 2,

Inhibitors of viral RNA synthesis

Remdesivir (GS-5734) is available as 150 mg vials.  Child dosing is

  • <40 kg: 5 mg/kg i.v. loading dose, then 2.5 mg/kg i.v. QD for 9 days
  • ≥40 kg: 200 mg loading dose, then 100 mg QD for 9 days

Remdesivir is an adenosine nucleotide analogue with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against various RNA viruses. The compound undergoes a metabolic mechanism, activating nucleoside triphosphate metabolite for inhibiting viral RNA polymerases. Remdesivir has demonstrated in vitro and in vivo activity in animal models against MERS and SARS-CoV. Remdesivir showed good tolerability and a potential positive effect in regard to decrease of the viral load and mortality in Ebola in Congo in 2018 (Mulangu 2019). In Europe this drug has rarely been used in children so one should be extremely careful. It can be obtained through compassionate use programs (



Table 2. Consensus on antiviral or immunomodulatory treatment in children
Disease severity in child Intervention
Mild or moderate disease
pCAP, upper respiratory tract infection, no need for oxygen
Treat symptomatically
No need for antiviral or immunomodulatory treatment
More severe disease and risk groups*
pCAP, need for oxygen
Treat symptomatically
consider antiviral therapy
Critically ill, admitted to ICU Treat symptomatically
Consider antiviral therapy
Consider immunomodulatory treatment
Secondary HLH (hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis) Treat with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive drugs

* Congenital heart disease, immunosuppression, inborn/acquired immunodeficiencies, cystic fibrosis, chronic lung disease, chronic neurological/kidney/liver disease, diabetes/metabolic disease


Lopinavir/r (LPV/r, Kaletra®) is a co-formulation of lopinavir and ritonavir, in which ritonavir acts as a pharmacokinetic enhancer (booster). It is available as 200/50 and 100/25 mg tablets or 133.3/33.3 mg capsules in some countries. There is a liquid preparation with an unpleasant taste (5 ml = 400/100 mg). Liquid has to be kept in the fridge. LPV/r contains 42% ethanol, 153 mg/ml and proprylene glycol which is toxic to preterms/neonates.

Dosing for liquid:

  • ≥14 days (postnatal age) and >42 weeks (postmenstrual age) to 6 months (postnatal age):
    • 16/4 mg/kg or 300/75 mg/m2 BID
  • ≥6 months-18 years: 230/57.5 mg/m2 BID
    • <15 kg 12/3 mg/kg BID
    • ≥15-40 kg: 10/2.5 mg/kg BID (max. 400/100mg BID)

Dosing for tablet:

  • 15-25 kg or 0.5-0.9 m2: 200/50 mg BID
  • 25-35 kg or 0.9-1.4 m2): 300/75 mg BID
  • >35 kg or ≥1.4 m2: 400/100mg BID.

Lopinavir/r should be taken with meals. It has a well-characterized safety, tolerability and toxicity profile. Adverse events include significant drug interactions, pancreatitis, hepatotoxicity, QT and PR interval prolongation.

LPV/r is an HIV-1 protease inhibitor successfully used in HIV infected children as part of highly active antiretroviral combination therapy (PENTA Group 2015). In the SARS epidemics, LPV/r was recommended as a treatment. A recent study in adult COVID-19 patients did not show an effect regarding the primary endpoint in a controlled clinical trial (see the Treatment chapter, page 166). Despite the fact that there is a large experience with LPV/r in HIV it is questionable whether its use in COVID-19 is effective at all.

Inhibitors of viral entry

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ, Quensyl®) is available as 200 mg tablets. Dosing is day 1 loading dose: 6.5 mg/kg (max. 400 mg) BID; then 3 mg/kg (max. 200 mg) BID for 5-10 days.

Chloroquine (CQ, Resochin junior®, Resochin®) is available as 81 or 250 mg tablets. Dosing is day 1 loading: 8 mg/kg (max 500 mg) BID; then 4 mg/kg (max. 250 mg) BID for 10 days. Oral solution of HCQ or CQ can be produced by the pharmacy. Adverse events: gastrointestinal effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort, myopathy, cardiotoxic effects, including rhythm disorders (such as a prolonged QT interval) and the development of cardiomyopathy. It is useful to do an ECG before starting therapy. Both drugs bind strongly to melanin and can deposit in melanin-​containing tissues which might explain retinopathy that occurs in high cumulative doses (Schrezenmeier 2020)

The efficacy of HCQ in rheumatic diseases has been characterized by a significant time delay by weeks to months because the drug needs to accumulate in the tissues. The half-​lives of the two drugs are comparably long (40–60 days) and plasma, blood and serum concentrations of HCQ/CQ can vary individually. Little information is available concerning drug concentrations in ‘deep’ organs, e.g. the lung. It is unclear to what extent HCQ/CQ have immunomodulatory effects in a COVID-19 patient with short disease duration. Their antiviral effect comes from lowering the pH of the lysosome and thereby inhibiting the entry of virus particles into the cell (Yao 2020, Zhou 2020). The experience among pediatricians with HCQ/CQ (except pediatriciancs working in malaria) is very limited. Authorities in the US are warning about a widespread use of HCQ/CQ in COVID-19 (

Immunomodulatory drug treatment

The rational for immunomodulation in COVID-19 patients comes from a high expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin-1 (IL1) and interleukin-6 (IL6)), chemokines (“cytokine storm”) and the consumption of regulatory T cells resulting in damage of the lung tissue as reported in patients with a poor outcome. Blocking IL-1 or IL-6 can be successful in children with (auto) inflammatory disease (reviewed in Niehues 2019). However, both interleukins are also key to the physiological immune response and severe side effects of immunomodulators have been reported. In adults with COVID-19, blocking interleukin-1/6 might be helpful (see the Treatment chapter). In the rare situation that the condition of the child deteriorates due to hyperinflammation and that they are resistant to other therapies, tocilizumab or anakinra may be an option.

Steroids (e.g. prednisone, prednisolone) are available as oral solution, tablets or different vials for intravenous application. Dosage in children is 0.5 to 1 mg/kg i.v. or oral BID. Short term use of steroids has few adverse events. Administration of steroids will affect inflammation by inhibiting the transcription of some of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and various other effects. The use of corticosteroids in children and adults with CoV-induced ARDS is controversial (Lee 2004, Arabi 2018, Russell 2020). The corticosteroid-induced decrease of antiviral immunity (e.g. to eliminate CoV-2 viruses) might be disadvantageous in patients with COVID-19. The use of low-dose hydrocortisone may be of advantage in adults with ARDS, whereas its use is controversial in pediatric ARDS.

Tocilizumab (Roactemra®) is available in 80/200/400 mg vials (20 mg/ml). Dosing is

  • <30 kg: 12 mg/kg i.v. QD, sometimes repeated after 8 hrs
  • ≥30 kg: 8mg/kg i.v. QD i.v. (max. 800 mg)

Adverse events (deriving largely from long term use in chronic inflammatory diseases and use in combination with other immunomodulatory drugs): severe bacterial or opportunistic infections, immune dysregulation (anaphylactic reaction, fatal macrophage activation), psoriasis, vasculitis, pneumothorax, fatal pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, diverticulitis, gastrointestinal perforation (reviewed in Niehues 2019).

Anakinra (Kineret®) is available as 100 mg syringes (stored at 4-8° C). Dosing is 2-4 mg/kg s.c. QD daily as long as hyperinflammation persists. Thereafter, dose reduction by 10-30% per day.  Adverse events (deriving largely from long term use in chronic inflammatory diseases and use in combination with other immunomodulatory drugs): severe bacterial or opportunistic Infections, fatal myocarditis, immune dysregulation, pneumonitis, colitis, hepatitis, endocrinopathies, nephritis, dermatitis, encephalitis, psoriasis, vitiligo, neutropenia (reviewed in Niehues 2019).


Engineering monoclonal antibodies against the CoV spike proteins or against its receptor ACE2 or specific neutralizing antibodies against CoV-2 present in convalescent plasma may provide protection but are not generally available yet.

Interferon α has been inhaled by children with COVID-19 in the original cohorts but there are no data on its effect (Qiu 2020). Type-1 interferons (e.g. interferon-a) are central to antiviral immunity. When coronaviruses (or other viruses) invade the host, viral nucleic acid activates interferon-regulating factors like IRF3 and IRF7 which promote the synthesis of type I interferons (IFNs).

COI: Tim Niehues has received authorship fees from (Wellesley, Massachusetts, USA) and reimbursement of travel expenses during consultancy work for the European Medicines Agency (EMA), steering committees of the PENTA Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (Padua, Italy), the Juvenile Inflammatory Cohort (JIR) (Lausanne, Switzerland), and, until 2017, the FIND-ID Initiative (supported by the Plasma Protein Therapeutics Association [PPTA] [Brussels, Belgium]).


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