*** The following text is out-of-date.***

For the latest news about COVID-19, please open the COVID Reference homepage.


Bernd Sebastian Kamps
& Christian Hoffmann


  1. Bao L, Deng W, Huang B, et al. The pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 transgenic mice. Nature. 2020 May 7. PubMed: Full-text:
  2. Chan JF, Zhang AJ, Yuan S, et al. Simulation of the clinical and pathological manifestations of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in golden Syrian hamster model: implications for disease pathogenesis and transmissibility. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 26:ciaa325. PubMed: Full-text:
  3. Chu H, Chan JF, Wang Y, et al. Comparative replication and immune activation profiles of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in human lungs: an ex vivo study with implications for the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 9:ciaa410. PubMed: Full-text:
  4. Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Netea MG, Rovina N, et al. Complex Immune Dysregulation in COVID-19 Patients with Severe Respiratory Failure. Cell Host Microbe. 2020 Apr 17:S1931-3128(20)30236-5. PubMed: Full-text:
  5. McKechnie JL, Blish CA. The Innate Immune System: Fighting on the Front Lines or Fanning the Flames of COVID-19? Cell Host Microbe. 2020 May 20:S1931-3128(20)30291-2. PubMed: Full-text:
  6. Hendren NS, Drazner MH, Bozkurt B, Cooper LT Jr. Description and Proposed Management of the Acute COVID-19 Cardiovascular Syndrome. Circulation. 2020 Apr 16. PubMed: Full-text:
  7. Hui KPY, Cheung MC, Perera RAPM, et al. Tropism, replication competence, and innate immune responses of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in human respiratory tract and conjunctiva: an analysis in ex-vivo and in-vitro cultures. Lancet Respir Med. 2020 May 7:S2213-2600(20)30193-4. PubMed: Full-text:
  8. Li H, Liu L, Zhang D, et al. SARS-CoV-2 and viral sepsis: observations and hypotheses. Lancet. 2020 May 9;395(10235):1517-1520. PubMed: Full-text:
  9. Liao M, Liu Y, Yuan J, et al. Single-cell landscape of bronchoalveolar immune cells in patients with COVID-19. Nat Med. 2020 May 12. PubMed: Full-text:
  10. Martines RB, Ritter JM, Matkovic E, et al. Pathology and Pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 Associated with Fatal Coronavirus Disease, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 May 21;26(9). PubMed: Full-text:
  11. Munster VJ, Feldmann F, Williamson BN, et al. Respiratory disease in rhesus macaques inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Nature. 2020 May 12. PubMed: Full-text:
  12. Ni L, Ye F, Cheng ML, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2-Specific Humoral and Cellular Immunity in COVID-19 Convalescent Individuals. Immunity. 2020 May 3:S1074-7613(20)30181-3. PubMed: Full-text:
  13. Ong EZ, Chan YFZ, Leong WY, et al. A Dynamic Immune Response Shapes COVID-19 Progression. Cell Host Microbe. 2020 Apr 30:S1931-3128(20)30185-2. PubMed: Full-text:
  14. Rockx B, Kuiken T, Herfst S, et al. Comparative pathogenesis of COVID-19, MERS, and SARS in a nonhuman primate model. Science. 2020 Apr 17:eabb7314. PubMed: Full-text:
  15. Shang J, Ye G, Shi K, et al. Structural basis of receptor recognition by SARS-CoV-2. Nature. 2020 May;581(7807):221-224. PubMed: Full-text:
  16. Sia SF, Yan LM, Chin AWH, et al. Pathogenesis and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in golden hamsters. Nature. 2020 May 14. PubMed: Full-text:
  17. Singh T, Heston SM, Langel SN, et al. Lessons from COVID-19 in children: Key hypotheses to guide preventative and therapeutic strategies. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 May 8:ciaa547. PubMed: Full-text:
  18. Thao TTN, Labroussaa F, Ebert N, et al. Rapid reconstruction of SARS-CoV-2 using a synthetic genomics platform. Nature. 2020 May 4. PubMed: Full-text:
  19. Wang Q, Zhang Y, Wu L, et al. Structural and Functional Basis of SARS-CoV-2 Entry by Using Human ACE2. Cell. 2020 May 14;181(4):894-904.e9. PubMed: Full-text:
  20. Zhang X, Tan Y, Ling Y, et al. Viral and host factors related to the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Nature. 2020 May 20. PubMed: Full-text:
  21. Zhang Y, Qin L, Zhao Y, et al. Interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 genetic variant rs12252-C is associated with disease severity in COVID-19. J Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 29:jiaa224. PubMed: Full-text:
  22. Zhou Z, Ren L, Zhang L, et al. Heightened Innate Immune Responses in the Respiratory Tract of COVID-19 Patients. Cell Host Microbe. 2020 May 4:S1931-3128(20)30244-4. PubMed: Full-text:
  23. Ziegler CGK, Allon SJ, Nyquist SK, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Receptor ACE2 Is an Interferon-Stimulated Gene in Human Airway Epithelial Cells and Is Detected in Specific Cell Subsets across Tissues. Cell. 2020 Apr 27:S0092-8674(20)30500-6. PubMed: Full-text: