Copy-editor: Rob Camp
Paper of the Day
Aran D. Estimating real-world COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness in Israel. GitHub 2021, posted 4 February. Full-text: https://github.com/dviraran/covid_analyses/blob/master/Aran_letter.pdf
This unpublished non-peer reviewed study suggests that the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine might be between 66%-83% effective at preventing infection in individuals 60 years and older, 76-85% in those younger than 60 years, and 87-96% effective in preventing severe cases.
Emary KRW, Golubchik T, Aley PK, et al. Efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2 VOC 202012/01 (B.1.1.7). Lancet Preprints 2021, posted 4 February. Full-text: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3779160
This unpublished non-peer reviewed study by Andrew Pollard, Katherine Emary and colleagues reports that among participants in Phase II/III ChAdOx1 studies who had been infected with B117, vaccine efficacy against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar for B117 and non-B117 lineages (74,6% [95% CI: 41,6-88,9] and 84% [95% CI: 70,7-91,4], respectively). Importantly, virus neutralization activity by vaccine-induced antibodies was 9-fold lower against B117 than against a canonical non-B117 lineage.
Kamps BS. Variants – 6 February update. COVID Reference 2021, published 6 February. Full-text: https://covidreference.com/variants | See also the Comparison document with new additions between 31 January and 6 February: http://www.bsk1.com/CR_Variants_Update.html
In many countries, the more transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants B117, B1351 and P1 are currently replacing previously dominating lineages. B117, B1351 and P1 are already dominant in England (B117), South Africa (B1351) and Amazonia (P1). They also account for 50% or more of new infections in Ireland, Portugal and Israel (B117). Over the coming weeks, B117 will spread through most countries in continental Europe and the US.
Haarhaus M, Santos C, Haase M, et al. Risks prediction of COVID-19 incidence and mortality in a large multi-national haemodialysis cohort: Implications for management of the pandemic in outpatient haemodialysis settings. Clin Kidney J 2021, published 5 February. Full-text: https://doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfab037
Outcomes in 38.256 hemodialysis (HD) patients from a multi-national dialysis cohort between March 3rd and July 3rd 2020. During the observational period, 1259 patients (3,3%) acquired COVID-19. Of these, 62% were hospitalized or died. Mortality was 22% among COVID-19 patients.
Sultanian P, Lundgren P, Strömsöe A, et al. Cardiac arrest in COVID-19: characteristics and outcomes of in- and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A report from the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Eur Heart J. 2021 Feb 5:ehaa1067. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/33543259. Full-text: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa1067
Pedram Sultanian and colleagues studied out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) of all patients reported to the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation from 1 January to 20 July 2020. During the pandemic phase, COVID-19 was involved in at least 10% of all OHCAs and 16% of IHCAs, and, among COVID-19 cases, 30-day mortality was increased 3,4-fold in OHCA and 2,3-fold in IHCA.
Ouldali N, Toubiana J, Antona D, et al. Association of Intravenous Immunoglobulins Plus Methylprednisolone vs Immunoglobulins Alone With Course of Fever in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children. JAMA. 2021 Feb 1. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/33523115. Full-text: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.0694
Among children with multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and methylprednisolone vs IVIG alone might be associated with a more favorable fever course. This is the suggestion of a retrospective cohort study of 111 children with suspected MIS-C. François Angoulvant, Naïm Ouldali and colleagues report that 3 of 34 children (9%) in the IVIG and methylprednisolone group and 37 of 72 (51%) in the IVIG alone group did not respond to treatment. The combination therapy would also be associated with less severe acute complications, including acute left ventricular dysfunction and hemodynamic support requirement.
Abbott A. COVID’s mental-health toll: how scientists are tracking a surge in depression. Nature 2021, published 3 February. Full-text: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-00175-z
Researchers are using huge data sets to link changes in mental health to coronavirus response measures.