Prevention: References

<<< Prevention Chapter

Prevention at the personal level

Good respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette.

Face masks


Hand Hygiene

Physical/Social distancing and avoiding crowded conditions


Speak quietly, don’t shout (or sing)!


Household hygiene

  • van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, et al. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 16;382(16):1564-1567. PubMed: Full-text:
  • Alex W H Chin; Julie T S Chu; Mahen R A Perera; Kenrie P Y Hui; Hui-Ling Yen; Michael C W Chan; et al. Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in different environmental conditions Lancet 2020:April 02, 2020DOI:
  • Radhika Gharpure; Candis M. Hunter; Amy H. Schnall; Catherine E. Barrett; Amy E. Kirby; Jasen Kunz; Kirsten Berling; Jeffrey W. Mercante; Jennifer L. Murphy; Amanda G. Garcia-Williams. Knowledge and Practices Regarding Safe Household Cleaning and Disinfection for COVID-19 Prevention — United States, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. May 2020 Early Release / June 5, 2020 / 69
  • Chang A, Schnall AH, Law R, et al. Cleaning and Disinfectant Chemical Exposures and Temporal Associations with COVID-19 – National Poison Data System, United States, January 1, 2020-March 31, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 24;69(16):496-498. PubMed: Full-text:


Prevention at the community/societal levels

Widespread testing, quarantine and intensive contact tracing


Quarantine and isolation of suspected or confirmed cases

  • Muge Cevik, Matthew Tate, Oliver Lloyd, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Jenna Schafers, Antonia Ho SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV viral load dynamics, duration of viral shedding and infectiousness: a living systematic review and meta-analysis medRxiv 2020.07.25.20162107; doi:


Test. Treat. Track.


Tracking apps


Mandatory face masks


Ban on mass gatherings


Localized and nationwide Lockdowns


Travel bans/border closures


Vaccinate for seasonal influenza and for COVID-19 (not yet available)


Containment and mitigaton of COVID-19

  • Xiaoyan Zhang, Yuxuan Wang. Comparison between two types of control strategies for the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. J Infect Dev Ctries 2020 14(7):6 96-698. doi:10.3855/jidc. 12899
  • OECD Flattening the covid-19 peak: Containment and mitigation policies Published online 24 March 2020
  • Joel Hellewell, Sam Abbott, Amy Gimma, Nikos I Bosse, Christopher I Jarvis, Timothy W Russell, James D Munday, Adam J Kucharski, W John Edmunds. Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts. Lancet Glob Health 2020; 8: e488–96Published OnlineFebruary 28, 2020
  • Parodi SM, Liu VX. From Containment to Mitigation of COVID-19 in the US. JAMA. 2020;323(15):1441–1442. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.3882
  • Walker PGT, Whittaker C, Watson OJ, et al. The impact of COVID-19 and strategies for mitigation and suppression in low- and middle-income countries. Science. 2020 Jul 24;369(6502):413-422. PubMed: Full-text:
  • Ramses Djidjou-Demasse, Yannis Michalakis, Marc Choisy, Mircea T. Sofonea, Samuel Alizon. Optimal COVID-19 epidemic control until vaccine deployment. medRxiv. 2020.04.02.20049189; doi:


Environmental hygiene and disinfection


Hospitals and other health care settings


Nursing facilities


Long-term Care Institutions

  • Yen MY, Schwartz J, King CC, Lee CM, Hsueh PR; Society of Taiwan Prevention and Control. Recommendations for protecting against and mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic in long-term care facilities. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2020 Apr 10;53(3):447-53. PubMed: Full-text:
  • Lai CC, Wang JH, Ko WC, et al. COVID-19 in long-term care facilities: An upcoming threat that cannot be ignored. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2020 Apr 13;53(3):444-6. PubMed: Full-text:








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