We dedicate this book to our students. May this selection of approx. 1,000 fine articles and full-text links deepen their understanding of the new coronavirus and prepare them for the challenges ahead (update 10 August: 444 pages).
COVID Reference Top 10 (January-July) | We dedicate this book to our students. May this selection of approx. 1,000 fine articles and full-text links deepen their understanding of the new coronavirus and prepare them for the challenges ahead (Update 10 August: PDF, 444 pages).
The following paragraphs will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give it early visibility.
Chagla Z, Hota S, Khan S, Mertz D, and the International Hospital and Community Epidemiology Group. Airborne Transmission of COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis 2020, published 11 August. Full-text: https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1118
Zain Chagla and colleagues discuss the paper by Morawska L, Milton DK, It is Time to Address Airborne Transmission of COVID-19 (Clin Infect Dis 2020, 6 July). They agree that there is potential for the transmission by aerosols, especially in poorly ventilated indoor crowded environments. However, they argue that the main mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is short range through droplets and close contact. Explore this one-page comment to see how the debate continues.
John A. Lednicky and colleagues isolated viable virus from air samples collected 2 to 4.8 meters away from two COVID-19 patients. The genome sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 strain isolated was identical to that isolated from the NP swab from the patient with an active infection. Estimates of viable viral concentrations ranged from 6 to 74 TCID50 units/L of air. This paper has not yet been peer-reviewed.
Bigelow BF, Tang O, Toci GR, et al. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Involving Residents Receiving Dialysis in a Nursing Home — Maryland, April 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 11 August 2020. Full-text: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6932e4
Nursing home residents who receive hemodialysis are at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infections. Benjamin Bigelow and colleagues investigated a COVID-19 outbreak in a Maryland nursing home. The prevalence of infection among residents undergoing dialysis was 47% (15 of 32) as compared to those not receiving dialysis (16%; 22 of 138) (p<0.001). The authors recommend strict control practices throughout the dialysis process, e.g., transportation, time spent in waiting areas, spacing of machines, and cohorting.
There is something wrong with our innate immune system responding to SARS-CoV-2. Bali Pulendran and colleagues analyzed immune responses in 76 COVID-19 patients and 69 healthy individuals and found a spatial dichotomy in the innate immune response, characterized by suppression of peripheral innate immunity, in the face of proinflammatory responses reported in the lung. In PBMCs of COVID-19 patients, there was reduced expression of HLA-DR and pro-inflammatory cytokines by myeloid cells, and impaired mTOR-signaling and IFN-α production by plasmacytoid DCs. In contrast, there were enhanced plasma levels of inflammatory mediators, including EN-RAGE (S100A12, a biomarker of pulmonary injury), TNFSF14, and oncostatin-M. The authors suggest that these three molecules and their receptors could represent attractive therapeutic targets.
Occurrences of extreme humid heat, higher than the optimal human survivability limit of 35°C, have more than doubled in frequency since 1979, leading to an increased frequency of tropical cyclones. Ziad Memish and colleagues now explain that all disasters cause large-scale population movements – making physical distancing in the new COVD world almost impossible. If you are involved in disaster planning, discover all the details you should think of.
Uppuluri EM, Shapiro NL. Development of pulmonary embolism in a nonhospitalized patient with COVID-19 who did not receive venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2020, published 11 August. Full-text: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxaa286
Ellen Uppuluri and Nancy Shapiro report a the case of a 32-year-old, overweight (weight, 90 kg; body mass index, 28) male who was treated for COVID-19 in an emergency department (ED) and discharged home. Twelve days later he was found to have a PE. The authors suggest that nonhospitalized patients with COVID-19 may be at higher risk for VTE than patients with other medical illnesses.
Piero Poletti, Marcello Tirani and colleagues analyzed 5,484 close contacts of COVID-19 cases in Italy. Infection fatality ratio was 0.43% for individuals younger than 70 years and 10.5% for older individuals. The risk of death after infection was 62% lower in clusters identified after 16 March 2020 and 1.8-fold higher for males.
* * * More articles will be presented throughout the day * * *
Today, there will be no Top 10, but the Top 1,000:
We dedicate this book to our students. May this selection of approx. 1,000 fine articles and full-text links deepen their understanding of the new coronavirus and prepare them for the challenges ahead (PDF, 390 pages).
Among other topics, how to safely reopen colleges and universities during COVID-19¸ screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection within a psychiatric hospital; virolactia in an asymptomatic mother; impact of for SARS-CoV-2 viral load on risk of intubation and mortality among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019; and high proportion of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections in 9 long-term care facilities.
Among other topics, Next Generation Sequencing of T and B cell receptor repertoires; excess deaths from COVID-19 and other causes; protracted ketonaemia in hyperglycaemic emergencies; neurologic and radiographic findings associated with COVID-19 infection in children; and is a “cytokine storm” relevant to COVID-19?
Bouhaddou M, Memon DF, Meyer B, et al. The Global Phosphorylation Landscape of SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Cell June 28, 2020.
Nothing to do next weekend? Then read this incredible work of 66 pages (> 400 references!). In brief: proteomics approaches that globally quantify changes in protein abundance and phosphorylation represent a powerful tool to elucidate mechanisms of viral pathogenesis by providing a snapshot of how cellular pathways and processes are rewired upon infection. Using a quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics survey of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero E6 cells, the 78 (!) authors present the global phosphorylation and protein abundance landscape of SARS-CoV-2 infection, map phosphorylation changes to disrupted kinases and pathways, and use these profiles to find drugs with the potential to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. In total, 87 compounds (10 FDA-approved drugs) were identified.