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The mini-textbook by
Kamps & Hoffmann

COVID Reference International

  1. Fourth Edition, PDF, 320 pages
    July 13 update: Transmission
    August 11 update: Prevention
  2. Daily Top 10 Papers (Bookmark…)
  3. CR Top 10 – Daily Science, PDF, 444 pages
  4. More than 1.000 full-text links to scientific articles: Epidemiology | Transmission | Prevention | Virology | Immunology | Diagnosis | Clinical Manifestation | Treatment | Pediatrics | Severe Covid-19 | Comorbidities | Timeline | Publication history
  5. Eight languages: Deutsch | English | Español | Français | Italiano | Português | Tiếng Việt | Türkçe.
  6. Print editions at zero royalty

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Download PDF (320 pages)

 

CR Top 10 – Daily Science

We dedicate this book to our students. May this selection of approx. 1,000 fine articles and full-text links deepen their understanding of the new coronavirus and prepare them for the challenges ahead (update 10 August: 444 pages).

Download PDF (444 pages)

 

 

Daily Top 10

The Top 10 COVID-19 papers
(N Engl J Med, Lancet, Nature, Science, Cell, Emerg Infect Dis, etc.)

 

Web Pages

Take advantage of COVID Reference to improve your language skills.

Deutsch (PDF)

Vorwort | Zeitachse | Epidemiologie | Virologie | Immunologie | Diagnose | Klinik | Therapie | Schwerer Krankheitsverlauf | Komorbiditäten | Pädiatrie

Wichtiger Hinweis

Español (PDF)

Prefacio | Cronología | Epidemiología | Virología | Inmunología | Diagnóstico | Manifestación clínica | Tratamiento | COVID-19 severo | Comorbilidades | Pediatria

Descargo de responsabilidad

Français (PDF)

Préface | Chronologie | Virologie | Épidémiologie | Immunologie | Diagnostic | Présentation clinique | Traitement | Formes sévères de COVID-19 | Comorbidités | Pediatrie

Avertissement

Italiano (PDF)

Prefazione | Cronologia | Epidemiologia | Virologia | Immunologia | Diagnosi | Manifestazione clinica | Terapia | COVID-19 severo | Comorbidità | Pediatria

Disconoscimento

Português (PDF)

Prefácio | Cronologia | Epidemiologia | Virologia | Imunologia | Diagnóstico | Apresentação clínica | Tratamento | COVID-19 grave | Comorbilidades/Populações Especiais | Pediatria e gravidez

Aviso legal

Tiếng Việt (PDF)

Lời nói đầu | Timeline | Dịch tễ học | Vi rút học | Miễn dịch học | Các quy trình xét nghiệm chẩn đoán | Biểu hiện lâm sàng | Điều trị | Quản lý bệnh nhân COVID-19 nặng | Bệnh nền | Nhi khoa

Tuyên bố miễn trừ trách nhiệm

Türkçe (PDF)

Önsöz | Süreç | Epidemioloji | Viroloji | Iimmünoloji | Teşhis Testleri ve Prosedürleri | Klinik sunum | Tedavi Yöntemleri | Şiddetli COVID-19 | Komorbiditeler | Çocuk Sağlığı

Feragat

 

 

 

Top 10

Home | TOP 10 BOOK (PDF) | April | May | June

By Christian Hoffmann &
Bernd S. Kamps

 

Download
COVID Reference Top 10 (January-July) | We dedicate this book to our students. May this selection of approx. 1,000 fine articles and full-text links deepen their understanding of the new coronavirus and prepare them for the challenges ahead (Update 10 August: PDF, 444 pages).

12 August

The following paragraphs will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give it early visibility.

Transmission

Chagla Z, Hota S, Khan S, Mertz D, and the International Hospital and Community Epidemiology Group. Airborne Transmission of COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis 2020, published 11 August. Full-text: https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1118

Zain Chagla and colleagues discuss the paper by Morawska L, Milton DK, It is Time to Address Airborne Transmission of COVID-19 (Clin Infect Dis 2020, 6 July). They agree that there is potential for the transmission by aerosols, especially in poorly ventilated indoor crowded environments. However, they argue that the main mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is short range through droplets and close contact. Explore this one-page comment to see how the debate continues.

 

Lednicky JA, Lauzardo M, Fan ZH, et al. Viable SARS-CoV-2 in the air of a hospital room 1 with COVID-19 patients. medRxiv 2020, posted 4 August. Pre-print: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.03.20167395v1

John A. Lednicky and colleagues isolated viable virus from air samples collected 2 to 4.8 meters away from two COVID-19 patients. The genome sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 strain isolated was identical to that isolated from the NP swab from the patient with an active infection. Estimates of viable viral concentrations ranged from 6 to 74 TCID50 units/L of air. This paper has not yet been peer-reviewed.

 

Bigelow BF, Tang O, Toci GR, et al. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Involving Residents Receiving Dialysis in a Nursing Home — Maryland, April 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 11 August 2020. Full-text: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6932e4

Nursing home residents who receive hemodialysis are at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infections. Benjamin Bigelow and colleagues investigated a COVID-19 outbreak in a Maryland nursing home. The prevalence of infection among residents undergoing dialysis was 47% (15 of 32) as compared to those not receiving dialysis (16%; 22 of 138) (p<0.001). The authors recommend strict control practices throughout the dialysis process, e.g., transportation, time spent in waiting areas, spacing of machines, and cohorting.

 

Pathogenesis

Arunachalam PS, Wimmers F, Mok CKP, Perera RAPM, et al. Systems biological assessment of immunity to mild versus severe COVID-19 infection in humans. Science 2020, published 11 August. Full-text: http://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc6261

There is something wrong with our innate immune system responding to SARS-CoV-2. Bali Pulendran and colleagues analyzed immune responses in 76 COVID-19 patients and 69 healthy individuals and found a spatial dichotomy in the innate immune response, characterized by suppression of peripheral innate immunity, in the face of proinflammatory responses reported in the lung. In PBMCs of COVID-19 patients, there was reduced expression of HLA-DR and pro-inflammatory cytokines by myeloid cells, and impaired mTOR-signaling and IFN-α production by plasmacytoid DCs. In contrast, there were enhanced plasma levels of inflammatory mediators, including EN-RAGE (S100A12, a biomarker of pulmonary injury), TNFSF14, and oncostatin-M. The authors suggest that these three molecules and their receptors could represent attractive therapeutic targets.

See also the Stanford Press News, 11 August: Study reveals immune-system deviations in severe COVID-19 cases.

 

Prevention

Ebrahim SH, Rahmen NMM, Imtiaz R, et al. Forward planning for disaster-related mass gatherings amid COVID-19. Lancet Planet Health 2020, published 11 August. Full-text: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(20)30175-3

Occurrences of extreme humid heat, higher than the optimal human survivability limit of 35°C, have more than doubled in frequency since 1979, leading to an increased frequency of tropical cyclones. Ziad Memish and colleagues now explain that all disasters cause large-scale population movements – making physical distancing in the new COVD world almost impossible. If you are involved in disaster planning, discover all the details you should think of.

 

Clinical

Uppuluri EM, Shapiro NL. Development of pulmonary embolism in a nonhospitalized patient with COVID-19 who did not receive venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2020, published 11 August. Full-text: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxaa286

Ellen Uppuluri and Nancy Shapiro report a the case of a 32-year-old, overweight (weight, 90 kg; body mass index, 28) male who was treated for COVID-19 in an emergency department (ED) and discharged home. Twelve days later he was found to have a PE. The authors suggest that nonhospitalized patients with COVID-19 may be at higher risk for VTE than patients with other medical illnesses.

 

Poletti P, Tirani M, Cereda D, et al. Age-specific SARS-CoV-2 infection fatality ratio and associated risk factors, Italy, February to April 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020 Aug;25(31). PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/32762797. Full-text: https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.31.2001383

Piero Poletti, Marcello Tirani and colleagues analyzed 5,484 close contacts of COVID-19 cases in Italy. Infection fatality ratio was 0.43% for individuals younger than 70 years and 10.5% for older individuals. The risk of death after infection was 62% lower in clusters identified after 16 March 2020 and 1.8-fold higher for males.

Contacts SARS-CoV-2 positive Deaths %
0–19 692 304 0  
20–49 1,951 885 0  
50–59 1,241 648 3 0.46
60–69 867 494 7 1.42
70–79 485 335 23 6.87
≥ 80 248 158 29 18.35
 
Male 2,398 1,220 33 2.70
Female 3,086 1,604 29 1.81
 
Comorbidities  
None 122 113 1 0.88
Cardiovascular 350 316 51 16.14
Respiratory 50 49 8 16.33
Oncological 106 92 11 11.96
Diabetes/metabolic 93 79 13 16.46
Unknown 4,947 2,335 9 0.39

 

 

 

* * * More articles will be presented throughout the day * * *

 




 

11 August

The Top 10 >>>

  • Stefano Lazzari: Prevention
  • Approaches and Challenges in SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Development
  • Molecular and Immunological Diagnostic Tests of COVID-19: Current Status and Challenges

and more >>>

 

10 August

The Top 10 >>>

  • Interferon responses in viral pneumonias
  • Improved clinical symptoms and mortality among patients with severe or critical COVID-19 after convalescent plasma transfusion
  • A molecular pore spans the double membrane of the coronavirus replication organelle

and more >>>

 

9 August

The Top 10 >>>

  • Successful Elimination of Covid-19 Transmission in New Zealand
  • Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Health Care Personnel in the New York City Area
  • COVID-19–Associated Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children — United States, March–July 2020

and more >>>

8 August

The Top 10 >>>

  • Clinical characteristics and predictors of outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in a multi-ethnic London NHS Trust: a retrospective cohort study
  • Digital technologies in the public-health response to COVID-19
  • Where Do the Children Play?

and more >>>

7 August

The Top 10 >>>

  • SARS-CoV-2 viral load predicts COVID-19 mortality
  • Systems-level immunomonitoring from acute to recovery phase of severe COVID-19
  • Severe COVID-19 is marked by a dysregulated myeloid cell compartment

and more >>>

6 August

The Top 10 >>>

  • The risk of COVID-19 transmission in train passengers: an epidemiological and modelling study
  • SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine design enabled by prototype pathogen preparedness
  • Changes in the Number of US Patients With Newly Identified Cancer Before and During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic

and more >>>

5 August

The Top 10 >>>

  • First results of the seroprevalence survey  about SARS-CoV-2 (Italy, 64,000 participants)
  • Relationship of George Floyd protests to increases in COVID-19 cases using event study methodology
  • Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs dendritic cell and T cell responses

and more >>>

4 August

The Top 10 >>>

  • SARS-CoV2 Serological Survey in Mumbai
  • Structural and functional properties of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein: potential antivirus drug development for COVID-19
  • Selective and cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes in unexposed humans

and more >>>

3 August

The Top 10 >>>

  • SARS-CoV-2 Transmission and Infection Among Attendees of an Overnight Camp
  • Immune complement and coagulation dysfunction in adverse outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection
  • Distinct early serological signatures track with SARS-CoV-2 survival

and more >>>

2 August

The Top 10 >>>

  • Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil
  • Adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in BALB/c mice for testing vaccine efficacy

and more >>>

 

1 August

The Top 10: Immunology >>>

Today, revise what you have studied over the past months. A summary of articles about Immunology and Vaccines since the beginning.

more >>>

31 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Body Mass Index and Risk for Intubation or Death in SARS-CoV-2 Infection
  • Activation and evasion of type I interferon responses by SARS-CoV-2
  • Epidemiology of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis among COVID-19 intubated patients: a prospective study

and more >>>

30 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Comparison of Face-Touching Behaviors Before and During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic
  • Papain-like protease regulates SARS-CoV-2 viral spread and innate immunity
  • Assessment of Community-Level Disparities in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infections and Deaths in Large US Metropolitan Areas

and more >>>

29 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in healthy donors and patients with COVID-19 (Nature)
  • Evaluation of the mRNA-1273 Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in Nonhuman Primates (N Engl J Med)
  • Case characteristics, resource use, and outcomes of 10 021 patients with COVID-19 admitted to 920 German hospitals: an observational study (Lancet Respir Med )

and more >>>

28 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Longitudinal analyses reveal immunological misfiring in severe COVID-19
  • Estimation of Viral Aerosol Emissions From Simulated Individuals With Asymptomatic to Moderate Coronavirus Disease 2019
  • Outcomes of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients Recently Recovered From Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

and more >>>

 

27 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Symptom Duration and Risk Factors for Delayed Return to Usual Health Among Outpatients with COVID-19 in a Multistate Health Care Systems Network
  • Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases receiving cytokine inhibitors have low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion
  • Evidence of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in cats and dogs from households in Italy

and more >>>

26 July

The Top 10: Clinical >>>

Today, revise what you have studied over the past months. A summary of articles about clinical manifestations, comorbidities and severe COVID-19 since the beginning.

more >>>

25 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Structural basis of RNA cap modification by SARS-CoV-2
  • COVID-19: immunopathogenesis and Immunotherapeutics
  • Particle sizes of infectious aerosols: implications for infection control

and more >>>

24 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • 4th Edition: Covid Reference España
  • Investigation of a superspreading event preceding the largest meat processing

23 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Potent neutralizing antibodies directed to multiple epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 spike
  • Virus-host interactome and proteomic survey of PBMCs from COVID-19 patients reveal potential virulence factors influencing SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis
  • The Contribution of the Age Distribution of Cases to COVID-19 Case Fatality Across Countries – A 9-Country Demographic Study
  • Retrospective Multicenter Cohort Study Shows Early Interferon Therapy Is Associated with Favorable Clinical Responses in COVID-19 Patients

and more >>>

22 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Historically controlled comparison of glucocorticoids with or without tocilizumab versus supportive care only in patients with COVID-19-associated cytokine storm syndrome: results of the CHIC study
  • Distinct conformational states of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein
  • Feasibility of Separate Rooms for Home Isolation and Quarantine for COVID-19 in the United States

and more >>>

21 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Outcomes of COVID-19 in Patients with CLL: A Multicenter, International Experience
  • Thrombosis in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 in a New York City Health System
  • The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer deaths due to delays in diagnosis in England, UK: a national, population-based, modelling study

and more >>>

20 July

The Top 10  >>>

  • Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial.
  • Immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine in healthy adults aged 18 years or older: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.
  • Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of Critically Ill Children and Adolescents with COVID-19 in New York City

and more >>>

19 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Kind request to authors of scientific papers

The Top 10 >>>

18 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19 — Preliminary Report
  • Structural basis for translational shutdown and immune evasion by the Nsp1 protein of SARS-CoV-2
  • The impact of mutations in SARS-CoV-2 spike on viral infectivity and antigenicity

and more >>>

17 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Universal Masking to Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Transmission—The Time Is Now
  • Magnitude and kinetics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses and their relationship to disease severity
  • Aging immunity may exacerbate COVID-19

and more >>>

16 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • An mRNA Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 – Preliminary Report
  • Deep immune profiling of COVID-19 patients reveals distinct immunotypes with therapeutic implications
  • Physical distancing interventions and incidence of coronavirus disease 2019: natural experiment in 149 countries

and more >>>

15 July

Today, there will be no Top 10, but the Top 1,000:

We dedicate this book to our students. May this selection of approx. 1,000 fine articles and full-text links deepen their understanding of the new coronavirus and prepare them for the challenges ahead (PDF, 390 pages).

Download PDF (390 pages)

14 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Impaired type I interferon activity and inflammatory responses in severe COVID-19 patients.
  • Structural basis of a shared antibody response to SARS-CoV-2
  • Potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria in low-income and middle-income countries: a modelling study

and more >>>

13 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Cardiac manifestations in COVID-19 patients – A systematic review
  • Types of Assays for SARS-CoV-2 Testing: A Review
  • Decontamination and reuse of N95 filtering facemask respirators: a systematic review of the literature
  • That Escalated Quickly: Remdesivir’s Place in Therapy for COVID-19

and more >>>

12 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Characteristics of Persons Who Died with COVID-19 — United States
  • Blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets of patients admitted during the COVID-19 pandemic
  • The inside story of the RECOVERY trial

and more >>>

11 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Persistent Symptoms in Patients After Acute COVID-19 (Jama)
  • Immunophenotyping of COVID-19 and influenza highlights the role of type I interferons in development of severe COVID-19 (Science Immunology)
  • Coagulation disorder in COVID-19 (Lancet Immunology)

 

and more >>>

 

10 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • COVID-19: the worst may be yet to come
  • Pandemic peak SARS-CoV-2 infection and seroconversion rates in London frontline health-care workers
  • Rapid isolation and profiling of a diverse panel of human monoclonal antibodies targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein

and more >>>

9 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • The emerging spectrum of COVID-19 neurology: clinical, radiological and laboratory findings
  • Coronavirus disease among persons with sickle cell disease
  • California’s San Quentin prison declined free coronavirus tests and urgent advice — now it has a massive outbreak
  • Potential transmission of SARS-CoV-2 on a flight from Singapore to Hanghzou, China
  • OpenSAFELY: factors associated with COVID-19 death in 17 million patients

and more >>>

 

8 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Coronavirus disease exposure and spread from nightclubs, South Korea
  • Kinetics of viral load and antibody response in relation to COVID-19 severity
  • COVID-19 Among Workers in Meat and Poultry Processing Facilities

and more >>>

 

7 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • It is Time to Address Airborne Transmission of COVID-19
  • Human IgG neutralizing monoclonal antibodies
  • Developing a SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine at Warp Speed
  • Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Among Frontline Healthcare Personnel
  • Obesity and COVID-19 in New York City

and more >>>

6 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in COVID-19 hotspots
  • COVID-19 and arterial hypertension
  • Interleukin-6 blockade with sarilumab

and more >>>

5 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Comparing SARS-CoV-2 with SARS-CoV and influenza pandemics
  • Exaggerated risk of transmission of COVID-19 by fomites
  • Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in Belgian long-term care facilities

and more >>>

4 July

The Top 10 >>>

  • Primary exposure to SARS-CoV-2 protects against reinfection in rhesus macaques
  • Stability of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses in the environment and on common touch surfaces and the influence of climatic conditions: a review
  • COVID-19 in health-care workers in three hospitals in the south of the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study
  • Evolution of Altered Sense of Smell or Taste in Patients With Mildly Symptomatic COVID-19

and more >>>

 

3 July

The Top 10 >>>

Among other topics, how to safely reopen colleges and universities during COVID-19¸ screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection within a psychiatric hospital; virolactia in an asymptomatic mother; impact of for SARS-CoV-2 viral load on risk of intubation and mortality among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019; and high proportion of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections in 9 long-term care facilities.

The Top 10 >>>

2 July

The Top 10 >>>

Among other topics, Next Generation Sequencing of T and B cell receptor repertoires; excess deaths from COVID-19 and other causes; protracted ketonaemia in hyperglycaemic emergencies; neurologic and radiographic findings associated with COVID-19 infection in children; and is a “cytokine storm” relevant to COVID-19?

The Top 10 >>>

 

1 July

The Top 10 >>>

Bouhaddou M, Memon DF, Meyer B, et al. The Global Phosphorylation Landscape of SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Cell June 28, 2020.

Nothing to do next weekend? Then read this incredible work of 66 pages (> 400 references!). In brief: proteomics approaches that globally quantify changes in protein abundance and phosphorylation represent a powerful tool to elucidate mechanisms of viral pathogenesis by providing a snapshot of how cellular pathways and processes are rewired upon infection. Using a quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics survey of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero E6 cells, the 78 (!) authors present the global phosphorylation and protein abundance landscape of SARS-CoV-2 infection, map phosphorylation changes to disrupted kinases and pathways, and use these profiles to find drugs with the potential to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. In total, 87 compounds (10 FDA-approved drugs) were identified.

The Top 10 >>>

 

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